Marketing Management: Unit-3

Marketing Management : Unit-3

Meaning of Advertising:

Advertising is how businesses, groups, or individuals talk to a particular audience and showcase things like products, services, ideas, or events. The main aim is to inform, persuade, or impact the audience’s actions, like getting them to buy something, back a cause, or join an event.

Features of Advertising:

  1. Paid Promotion: Advertising typically involves a financial investment to reach a wider audience through various media channels.
  2. Target Audience: Advertisers tailor their messages to specific demographics, ensuring that the content resonates with the intended audience.
  3. Creative Content: Effective advertising often relies on creative and engaging content to capture the audience’s attention and leave a lasting impression.
  4. Message Consistency: Consistency in messaging is vital to establish and reinforce a brand’s identity or the objectives of the advertising campaign.
  5. Call to Action: Advertisements often include a clear and actionable message encouraging the audience to take specific steps, like making a purchase or subscribing to a service.

Various Types of Advertising:

  1. Print Advertising: This category encompasses advertisements featured in newspapers, magazines, brochures, and various other printed materials. It’s a traditional form of advertising that offers a tangible medium for messages.
  2. Broadcast Advertising: This encompasses advertising on television and radio. Commercials are a common example of this type of advertising.
  3. Digital Advertising: With the growth of the internet, digital advertising includes banner ads, social media advertising, search engine marketing, and video ads on websites and apps.
  4. Outdoor Advertising: Billboards, transit ads (on buses and trains), and posters are examples of outdoor advertising. They target people in public spaces.
  5. Direct Mail Advertising: This involves sending promotional materials, like postcards or catalogs, directly to individuals’ mailboxes.
  6. Influencer Marketing: Engaging in partnerships with social media influencers to endorse products or services to their respective follower bases.
  7. Guerrilla Marketing: Unconventional and often low-cost advertising tactics that rely on creativity and surprise to engage the audience.

Objectives of Advertising:

  • One of the primary objectives of advertising is to boost product or service sales. Effective advertising can attract potential customers and persuade them to make a purchase.
  • Advertising helps in creating and enhancing brand recognition. By repeatedly exposing the target audience to the brand and its messages, advertising aims to make the brand more familiar to consumers.
  • In some cases, advertising seeks to change consumer behavior. This could involve encouraging healthier habits, promoting eco-friendly products, or discouraging harmful behaviors.


Publicity is about getting noticed in the media. It’s a way for individuals, products, services, events, or organizations to become more visible to the public.

Publicity Objectives:

  1. Generate Awareness: The primary objective of publicity is to create awareness about a product, service, event, or organization. It aims to make the target audience aware of what is being promoted.
  2. Inform and Educate: Publicity is used to inform and educate the public about specific aspects of the subject matter. It can provide information, explain benefits, and clarify misconceptions.
  3. Shape Public Perception: Publicity often seeks to shape public perception by highlighting positive aspects, mitigating negative perceptions, or managing reputational issues.
  4. Promote News or Events: Publicity is frequently used to promote news, events, product launches, or significant developments within an organization.
  5. Enhance Credibility: By obtaining media coverage or mentions in trusted sources, publicity aims to enhance the credibility and trustworthiness of the subject.


  1. Amplified Reach: A well-placed news story or viral content can reach a vast audience quickly, extending the subject’s reach.
  2. SEO Benefits: Online publicity can improve search engine rankings, making it easier for people to find the subject online.
  3. Media Relations: Effective publicity can help build positive relationships with the media, which can be beneficial for future coverage.


  1. Lack of Control: Organizations have limited control over how their messages are presented in the media, and negative coverage can occur.
  2. Unpredictable: The success of publicity campaigns is often unpredictable and relies on the media’s interest and the public’s response.
  3. Limited Timing: Publicity might not be available on a schedule. It depends on media interest, which can lead to delays.
  4. Short-Lived Impact: Publicity often has a short-term impact, and sustained attention may require ongoing efforts.

Public Relations (PR):

Public Relations is a strategic communication practice that focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships between an organization and its various stakeholders, including customers, employees, investors, the media, and the general public. PR aims to create a favorable image and reputation for the organization by managing and shaping public perceptions. PR professionals work to convey a consistent and positive message about the organization through various means, including media relations, press releases, community engagement, crisis management, and internal communications.

Public Relations Objectives:

  1. Build Positive Relationships: PR aims to establish and maintain positive relationships between an organization and its various stakeholders, including customers, employees, investors, and the public.
  2. Manage Reputation: PR seeks to manage and enhance an organization’s reputation, addressing challenges and maintaining a positive image.
  3. Crisis Management: PR is crucial for managing crises and handling situations that could damage an organization’s reputation.
  4. Media Relations: PR involves maintaining relationships with the media, distributing press releases, and facilitating interviews and coverage.
  5. Community Engagement: PR often includes initiatives to engage with the local community, support charitable causes, and demonstrate corporate social responsibility.

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