Research Methodology Chapter 4: M.COM.[PDF]

Research Methodology Chapter : 4

Preparing a research report involves several crucial steps to effectively communicate the findings and insights obtained from the study.Report preparation refers to the process of creating a document that presents information, findings, analysis, or recommendations on a particular topic or subject matter. This process involves several key steps to ensure that the report effectively communicates its intended message to the audience.

Report Preparation:-

Report preparation is the process of creating a document that presents information in a clear, concise, and organized way. This information can be based on research, data analysis, project findings, or other relevant details. The specific steps involved in report preparation can vary depending on the type of report, its purpose, and its audience.


A report is a formal document that presents information, findings, analysis, or recommendations on a particular topic or subject matter. Reports are typically written for a specific audience, such as stakeholders, decision-makers, or clients, with the goal of informing, persuading, or influencing their actions or decisions.

What a Report Contains :-

1. Title Page:

  • Title of the Report: Clearly state the title of the research report.
  • Author(s) Information: Provide the names and affiliations of the author(s).
  • Date: Include the date of completion or submission.

2. Abstract:

  • Summary: Write a concise summary of the research objectives, methodology, key findings, and conclusions.
  • Length: Keep the abstract brief, typically between 150 to 250 words.

3. Table of Contents:

  • List of Sections: Include a table of contents with page numbers for easy navigation.

4. Introduction:

  • Background: Provide context for the research topic and explain its significance.
  • Objectives: Clearly state the research objectives or questions that the study aims to address.
  • Literature Review: Summarize relevant literature and previous research on the topic.

5. Methodology:

  • Research Design: Describe the research design, including the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling method, and data collection procedures.
  • Participants: Provide details about the study participants, such as sample size, demographic characteristics, and any inclusion/exclusion criteria.
  • Instruments: Describe the instruments or tools used for data collection (e.g., surveys, interviews, tests).
  • Data Analysis: Explain the analytical techniques and statistical methods used to analyze the data.

6. Results:

  • Presentation: Present the main findings of the study in a clear and organized manner.
  • Tables and Figures: Use tables, charts, graphs, and diagrams to illustrate key results.
  • Interpretation: Provide interpretation and explanation of the findings, highlighting their significance in relation to the research objectives.

7. Discussion:

  • Interpretation: Analyze and interpret the results in light of the research questions and objectives.
  • Comparison: Compare the findings with previous research and discuss any similarities, differences, or contradictions.
  • Implications: Discuss the implications of the findings for theory, practice, policy, or future research.
  • Limitations: Acknowledge any limitations or constraints of the study that may affect the interpretation of the results.

8. Conclusion:

  • Summary: Summarize the main findings and conclusions of the study.
  • Recommendations: Provide recommendations for future research or practical applications based on the findings.

9. References:

  • List all sources cited in the report using the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA).

10. Appendices:

  • Include any supplementary materials, such as raw data, survey instruments, or additional analyses.

11. Formatting and Style:

  • Ensure consistency in formatting, style, and citation throughout the report.
  • Use clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or technical terms that may be difficult for the reader to understand.

12. Review and Revision:

  1. Review the report for accuracy, clarity, coherence, and adherence to guidelines.
  2. Revise as needed based on feedback from peers, advisors, or reviewers.

Types of Research Report:-

1. Descriptive Research Report:

Describes the characteristics or attributes of a phenomenon or subject of study.
Focuses on providing a detailed account of what is observed without attempting to establish causal relationships or make predictions.

2. Analytical Research Report:

Analyzes the relationships between variables to understand the underlying causes or factors influencing a phenomenon.
Often involves statistical analysis and hypothesis testing to explore associations or patterns in the data.

3. Experimental Research Report:

Reports findings from controlled experiments designed to test hypotheses and determine cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
Typically includes detailed descriptions of the experimental design, procedures, and results.

4. Qualitative Research Report:

Presents findings from qualitative research methods such as interviews, focus groups, or participant observation.
Emphasizes rich descriptions, interpretations, and meanings derived from the data.

5. Quantitative Research Report:

Reports findings from quantitative research methods such as surveys, experiments, or secondary data analysis.
Focuses on numerical data, statistical analysis, and objective measurement of variables.

6. Mixed Methods Research Report:

Integrates qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research problem.
Combines both qualitative and quantitative findings in the report to triangulate results and enhance validity.

7. Longitudinal Research Report:

Reports findings from research conducted over an extended period, often involving multiple waves of data collection.
Examines changes or trends in variables over time and may involve cohort studies or panel surveys.

8. Cross-sectional Research Report:

Presents findings from research conducted at a single point in time, typically comparing different groups or populations.
Provides a snapshot of the current state of variables and relationships between them.

9. Case Study Report:

Presents an in-depth analysis of a particular case, situation, or phenomenon.
Often used to explore complex or unique issues and provide detailed insights into real-world contexts.

Literature Review Report:

Summarizes and synthesizes existing research and literature on a particular topic.
Provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge, identifies gaps or inconsistencies in the literature, and suggests directions for future research.

Precaution in Preparation of Research Report:-

1. Understand the Guidelines:

Familiarize yourself with any guidelines, instructions, or requirements provided by your institution, publisher, or supervisor regarding the format, structure, and content of the research report.

2. Use Reliable Sources:

Use credible and reputable sources of information for your research, including peer-reviewed journals, academic publications, official reports, and reputable websites. Avoid relying on unreliable or biased sources.

3. Ensure Accuracy:

Verify the accuracy of the data, facts, and information presented in the report. Double-check calculations, statistical analyses, and references to ensure they are correct.

4. Maintain Objectivity:

Present the findings, analysis, and conclusions of your research objectively, without bias or personal opinion. Acknowledge limitations and uncertainties in the data and avoid overstating or exaggerating your results.

5. Protect Participants’ Rights:

If your research involves human participants, ensure that their rights, privacy, and confidentiality are protected. Obtain informed consent from participants, anonymize data where necessary, and adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations.

6. Adhere to Ethical Standards:

Conduct your research in accordance with ethical principles and guidelines relevant to your field. Avoid plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, or other unethical practices that undermine the integrity of your research.

7. Organize and Structure:

Organize the content of the report in a clear, logical, and structured manner. Use headings, subheadings, and bullet points to improve readability and facilitate navigation.

8. Proofread and Edit:

Carefully proofread the report for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and typographical errors. Edit the content for clarity, coherence, and conciseness. Consider seeking feedback from colleagues or peers to identify areas for improvement.

9. Provide Citations and References:

Properly cite and reference all sources of information, data, and ideas used in the report. Follow the appropriate citation style (e.g., APA, MLA) and provide accurate bibliographic details to enable readers to locate the original sources.

10. Review for Consistency and Accuracy:

Review the entire report for consistency and accuracy in terminology, formatting, and presentation. Ensure that figures, tables, and captions are labeled correctly and match the corresponding text.

Bibliography and Annexure in Report:-


A bibliography is a list of sources, such as books, articles, websites, or other materials, that are referenced or consulted in a research paper, report, or project. It typically appears at the end of the document and provides readers with the necessary information to locate and retrieve the sources cited in the text.

The bibliography includes bibliographic details for each source, such as the author(s), title, publication date, publisher, and other relevant information. It may be organized alphabetically by author’s last name or numerically by citation order, depending on the citation style used (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).

Significance of Bibliography

  1. Credibility and Verification: Including a bibliography in a research paper or report demonstrates the author’s commitment to citing credible sources. It allows readers to verify the accuracy and reliability of the information presented by consulting the listed sources themselves.
  2. Academic Integrity: Properly citing sources in a bibliography is a fundamental aspect of academic integrity. It helps to avoid plagiarism by giving credit to the original authors and acknowledging their contributions to the research.
  3. Further Reading: A bibliography provides readers with a list of additional resources on the topic, allowing them to delve deeper into the subject matter. It serves as a valuable tool for researchers, students, and other interested individuals seeking to explore related literature.
  4. Contextualization: The sources listed in a bibliography provide context and background information for the research topic. They help readers understand the scholarly conversation surrounding the topic and the existing body of knowledge in the field.
  5. Support for Arguments: Citing relevant sources in a bibliography strengthens the arguments and claims made in the research paper or report. It lends credibility to the author’s assertions by showing that they are supported by existing research and scholarship.
  6. Acknowledgment of Intellectual Debt: Including a bibliography acknowledges the intellectual debt owed to previous researchers, scholars, and authors whose work has informed and influenced the current study. It demonstrates respect for the contributions of others to the advancement of knowledge.
  7. Navigational Aid: A bibliography serves as a navigational aid for readers, guiding them to relevant sources for further reading and research. It enables readers to trace the origins of specific ideas, concepts, or arguments discussed in the document.


An annexure, also known as an appendix or supplementary material, is a section of a document, report, or research paper that contains additional information, data, or documentation relevant to the main content but not essential for understanding it. Annexures are typically included at the end of the document and are numbered or lettered sequentially for easy reference.

The purpose of annexures is to provide readers with supplementary material that supports or enhances the main text. This additional material may include raw data, survey instruments, questionnaires, interview transcripts, charts, tables, graphs, maps, photographs, or any other relevant information that expands upon the content discussed in the document.

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Significance of Annexure

  1. Supplementary Information: Annexures provide additional information, data, or documentation that supports or supplements the main content of the document. This supplementary material may include raw data, charts, tables, graphs, maps, photographs, or any other relevant information that expands upon the content discussed in the document.
  2. Detailed Evidence: Annexures allow authors to include detailed evidence or supporting documentation without cluttering the main body of the document. This additional material can help readers better understand the research methodology, analysis, or findings presented in the document.
  3. Transparency and Verification: Including annexures enhances the transparency and verifiability of the research by providing readers with access to the underlying data or evidence. This allows readers to verify the accuracy and reliability of the information presented in the document and enhances the credibility of the research.
  4. Comprehensive Reporting: Annexures enable authors to provide a comprehensive report of their research findings by including all relevant data and information, even if it is not essential for understanding the main text. This ensures that readers have access to all the relevant details and can make informed judgments about the research.
  5. Accessibility: Annexures allow authors to include supplementary material that may be of interest to certain readers but not essential for all readers. This ensures that the main text remains focused and accessible to a broad audience while providing additional material for those who wish to delve deeper into the topic.
  6. Organized Presentation: By including annexures, authors can organize the document in a structured and systematic manner, with the main text focusing on the key points and the supplementary material provided in separate sections at the end of the document. This improves the overall organization and readability of the document.

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